Fixed Media

Bluetooth Disruptions (2019)

Discourse on music which utilises the noise of a medium often focuses on how this process can be viewed as an act of nostalgia. Whilst in many cases this can be true often the utilisation of these sounds can be for other reasons. Bluetooth Disruptions looks to apply techniques often utilised by artists working with the noise of mediums like tape and vinyl to contemporary ‘noiseless’ audio mediums. All sounds utilised in this composition were created by interfering with and disrupting streams of Bluetooth audio.

Uncovered Creature (2018)

Still from Lilja María Ásmundsdóttir’s Lurking Creature

Composed to accompany Lilja María Ásmundsdóttir piece Lurking Creature for sound sculpture, electronics and dance. Uncovered Creature looks to the noise of movement introduced into the original piece through the inclusion of dance and forefronts this sound, uncovering layers of sonic detail usually hidden.

Akai 4000D (2018)

For years musicians, producers and engineers sought to reduce the noise-floor of tape. Technologies such as Dolby dbx were developed to minimise the influence of the media on the recorded sound. However today, for many the noise-floor of tape carries a sense of nostalgia, similar to the crackle of vinyl. Akai 4000D is an exploration of the sound of tape and tape machines. The piece looks to question the function of these sounds in a post-digital society. Whilst composing this piece I was particularly interested in exploring the simulacra of nostalgia I felt for the medium of tape as I was born after the invention and popularisation of the CD.

Seeth (2017)

Chants move through the busy streets of a protest as if liquid. Trickling, bubbling, cascading, seething. Rivers of sound carry, mutate and weave over and away from you. Some erupt suddenly whilst others wash over and dry up, leaving only a distant murmur in their place. A torrent of emotion carving its way through the city.

Seethe was written for the Cities and Memories: Sounds of Protest project and is composed from the sounds of protest in Paris on Boulevard Beaumarchais in October 2010. The original recording ‘Rhythms of Protest’ was made by Des Coulam. More information about this recording can be found here

Disinter (2017)

Disinter is composed from a recording of a granite quarry in the Viseu Dão Lafões region of Portugal. Inspired by the process of quarrying granite, the piece is structured around the concept of gradual unearthing. Throughout the duration of the piece individual layers rise out of the underlying texture to prominence. These are then forced back into the background by the next incoming layer of sound.

City of Falling Angels [Remix] (2016)

Liza Lim’s original programme note for City of Falling Angels features the following Walter Benjamin quote:

”This is how one pictures the Angel of history. His face is turned toward the past. Where we perceive a chain of events, he sees one single catastrophe which keeps piling wreckage and hurls it in front of his feet.”

This remix aims to be an electroacoustic recreation of this vivid image. The opening impact is the single catastrophe perceived by the Angel and from the tail of the opening impact the wreckage builds. Individual sounds burst into prominence before forming part of the underlying texture, creating a tempestuous force that hurtles towards the present.

This piece is a remix of the work City of Falling Angels for percussion ensemble composed by Liza Lim and recorded by the Internationales Musikinstitut Darmstadt.

Fractured (2016)

Fractured started out as a CD containing 12 tracks of white noise. This CD was destroyed and the resulting sounds recorded to another disk. Repeated over and over, eventually the original sound was lost, leaving only the sound of the process. The broken disks produced a plethora of harsh noise and volatile rhythmic patterns, these were layered the interaction between them explored. A CD can only be so broken before it is unplayable. Similarly the layers within the piece can only be so dense before they have to stop.

Torpor (2016)

Due to their small size and lack of insulating downy feathers hummingbirds rapidly lose body heat to their surroundings. Because of this hummingbirds must regularly consume large quantities of nectar and insects to feed their rapid metabolism. To survive when sleeping at night hummingbirds must enter a state of reduced physiological activity called torpor. This process involves the bird lowering its internal temperature to a level barely able to maintain life, becoming hyperthermic. Doing so allows the bird to reduce its metabolic rate by as much as 95%, causing the bird to consume up to 50 times less energy. Alexander Wilson first described torpid hummingbirds in his book, American Ornithology; “No motion of the lungs could be perceived […] the eyes were shut, and, when touched by the finger, [the bird] gave no signs of life or motion.” Awaking from a torpid state takes approximately 20 minutes; the bird gently vibrates its wing muscles to warm the blood supply. This process leaves the hummingbird with just enough energy supplies to survive the first feeding bouts of the morning.

Stratum (2016)


A layer of material, naturally or artificially formed, often one of a number of parallel layers one upon another.

Inaudible Soundscapes (2015)

The human senses only allow us to experience a very narrow section of the world around us, Inaudible Soundscapes is an exploration of what we cannot hear. Focusing on the interplay between pitch and noise in the turbulent sound world of the inaudible; the piece is composed of recordings of electromagnetic waves outputted by various pieces of audio hardware, presenting the medium of delivery as the piece itself.

Digital Spaces (2015)

Composed for the Furnace Park Project, Digital Spaces is an exploration of noise through the resonance of the real world. The sounds used throughout the work were generated by converting images of the park into audio; this harsh noise was then processed using convolution to allow these digital sounds to interact with real spaces and resonances captured at the park.

Niederau [Remix] (2014)

Niederau (Remix) focuses on a slow disintegration of the original flute sounds resulting in a gradual transition from a natural sound world into an electronic, abstract one. With the flute being a classical instrument I looked to the forms associated with that aesthetic when structuring the piece; for this reason I chose to write in rounded binary form.

Drum Solo (2014)

Originally for 4 channel surround plus LFE.

The drum kit offers an eclectic mix of sounds and although not pitched offers one of the widest harmonic ranges of all western instruments. Drum Solo is an exploration of the timbral qualities of the drum kit and the musical possibilities of the noise based sounds that these can create. The piece focuses on the interplay between stasis and rhythm changing rapidly between noise based drones and glitch inspired beats.